Conventional long form: does not exist;
Common short form: Antarctica.
State structure: The Antarctic Treaty (Summary): The Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal basis for the administration of Antarctica. Management is carried out at consultative meetings of representatives of the member countries of the Treaty. According to Mcat-Test-Centers, the 23rd consultative meeting was held in Peru in May 1999. At the end of 2000, there were 44 member countries of the Treaty: 27 consultative and 17 acceding. The consultative (voting) members include 7 states that consider some areas of Antarctica as part of their national territory (some claims overlap), and 20 states that have no claims. The US and Russia, which have no claims, reserve the right to do so. The US does not recognize the claims of other countries. Antarctica is governed by meetings of advisory members. The decisions of these meetings are carried out by these members (within their areas) in accordance with their national laws. The year in brackets indicates when the acceding country gained full consultative status (the right to vote) as a result of voting, and the absence of a date indicates that the country signed the Treaty in 1959. States with claims: Australia, Argentina, Great Britain, New Zealand, Norway, France, Chile. Non-claiming consultative members: Belgium, Bulgaria (1998), Brazil (1983), Germany (1981), India (1983), Spain (1988), Italy (1987), China (1985), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), Russia, USA, Uruguay (1985), Finland (1989), Sweden (1988), Ecuador (1990), South Africa, South Korea (1989), Japan. Affiliated (non-voting) members (year of accession in brackets): Austria (1987), Hungary (1984), Venezuela (1999), Guatemala (1991), Greece (1987), Denmark (1965), Canada (1988), North Korea (1987), Colombia (1988), Cuba (1984), Papua New Guinea ( 1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Turkey (1995), Ukraine (1992), Czech Republic (1993), Switzerland (1990). According to Article 1, the territory of Antarctica should be used only for peaceful purposes; military activities, in particular weapons testing, are prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or other peaceful purposes; article 2 guarantees freedom of scientific research and cooperation; Article 3 guarantees the free exchange of information and personnel for cooperation with UN agencies and other international agencies; under Article 4, no territorial claims are recognized, disputed or confirmed, and, while the Treaty is in force, it is forbidden to put forward new claims; article 5 prohibits nuclear testing or the disposal of radioactive waste; according to Article 6, all territories and shelf ice lying south of 60 ° 00′ S. sh., are subject to the Agreement; under article 7, observers from member countries of the Treaty are guaranteed free access to any territory, including observation from the air; they can inspect all stations, facilities and equipment; at the same time, advance notices must be made of all kinds of activities and of military personnel; under article 8, scientists and observers are under the jurisdiction of their countries; Article 9 stipulates the obligatory nature of frequent consultative meetings between countries-members of the Treaty; under article 10, the member countries of the Treaty undertake to prevent the actions of any country that are contrary to the clauses of the Treaty; under article 11, all disputes must be settled amicably by the parties involved or, ultimately, by the International Court of Justice; articles 12, 13 and 14 speak of the approval, interpretation and amendment of the Treaty adopted by the participating countries. Among other agreements – only about 200 recommendations adopted at consultative meetings of the countries participating in the Treaty and ratified by governments – agreements on measures for the protection of the Antarctic fauna and flora (1964) stand out; Convention for the Protection of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention for the Protection of the Living Marine Resources of the Antarctic (1980); in 1988 a mineral resource agreement was signed, but it was subsequently cancelled. On October 4, 1991, the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed; he joined the Sipu on January 14, 1998. This agreement guarantees the protection of the Antarctic environment through five special amendments relating to marine pollution, fauna and flora, environmental impact assessment, waste management and protected areas; The protocol prohibits the conduct of any activity related to minerals, with the exception of scientific research.
Legal system: Antarctica is governed by meetings of advisory members. The decisions of these meetings are carried out by these members (within their areas) in accordance with their national laws. The operation of US law, including punishment for certain types of crimes committed by or against US citizens, such as murder, is extraterritorial. Some of the US laws are directly applicable to Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act (16 USC, Section 2401 et seq.) establishes administrative and criminal penalties for the following acts (until special legislation is passed): the taking of Antarctic mammals and birds; importation of plants and animals from outside Antarctica; entry into protected or scientifically important areas; distribution or disposal of polluting agents; shipment to the USA from Antarctica of certain animal species. Violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act is punishable by a fine of up to $10,000 and up to a year in prison. The Ministries of Finance, Trade, Transport and Interior are responsible for enforcing this law. Expeditions departing the United States for Antarctica are also required to notify the Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs, Room 5801, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520 in advance, which, in accordance with the Antarctic Treaty is obliged to inform other countries about it. For more information, please contact: Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230; Phone: (703) 306-1031, or visit www.nsf.gov. Economy (703) 306-1031, or www.nsf.gov. Economy (703) 306-1031, or www.nsf.gov.
Conventional long form: does not exist;