Nizhny Novgorod, Nižnij Novgorod [ni ʒ -], 1932–90 Gorki (after M. Gorki), regional capital and capital of the Federal District Volga, Russia, at the confluence of the Oka into the Volga, with (2018) 1.26 million Fifth largest city in Russia.
One of the most important Russian economic and cultural centers; administrative center of the Volga region, seat of the Russian Orthodox “Metropolitan of Nizhny Novgorod and Arsamas”; University (founded in 1916), technical, educational, linguistic university, university of architecture and construction, medical, agricultural and other universities, academy for transport, conservatory, numerous research institutes, museums (especially art, natural history, Gorki and open-air museums), philharmonic orchestra, several theaters, zoological garden; annual Sakharov Music Festival. Nizhny Novgorod is an important trade center (1817-1930 and since 1990 trade fair again) and one of the most important industrial cities in Russia; Shipyard (since 1849), machine, Engine and vehicle construction (up to 2010 passenger car “Volga”), aviation and extensive armaments industry (headquarters of the aircraft construction holding “Kaskol”, aircraft factory “Sokol”), metal and oil processing, chemical, light and food industry, information technology, transport hub with inland port and international airport. Nizhny Novgorod has had a metro since 1985. About 35 km above the town near Gorodets (namesake for the prehistoric type of settlement Gorodishche) is the Nizhny Novgorod hydropower plant, followed by the 440 km long Nizhny Novgorod Volgastausee (1,590 km 2).
Cityscape: The 14th century Kremlin, expanded between 1500 and 11, is the largest in Russia with its 12 (formerly 13) towers and its 2,045 m long wall. In the middle of the 17th century, monasteries were founded (cave monasteries, Annunciation monastery, etc.), which form characteristic assemblies. In 1718 the Church of the Birth of the Virgin Mary was completed, a Russian Orthodox cathedral with five distinctive onion domes. In the second half of the 18th century, the old town was regulated and a grid of radial and semicircular streets was created. A new stadium was built on the banks of the Volga especially for the 2018 World Cup.
History: The city, founded in 1221 as a border fortress of the Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal, since 1350 the residence of an independent principality, developed early on into an important trading center. Captured by Moscow troops in 1392, it was a strategically important point in the conflict with the Kazan Khanate and was therefore 1508-11 under Vasily III. expanded to a fortress. Another economic boom began with the relocation of one of Russia’s most important trade fairs from the nearby Makarev Monastery to Nizhny Novgorod (1817). During the Soviet era, Nizhny Novgorod was a city inaccessible to foreigners due to the concentration of armaments factories.
Nizhny Novgorod (1932–90 Gorky), industrial and port city in Russia, at the confluence of the Oka in the Volga, with (2018) 1.26 million residents fifth largest city in Russia.
Nizhny Novgorod is the leading economic and cultural center of the Volga region with a university and several colleges. – The city, founded in 1221, is the birthplace of the writer Maxim Gorky.
Yekaterinburg, Ekaterinburg [je-], 1924–91 Sverdlovsk, capital of the Sverdlovsk region, Russia, in the eastern foothills of the central Urals, on the Isset, with (2018) 1.46 million residents.
Most important scientific center of the Urals, State University (founded in 1920), technical university and numerous other universities, Ural department of the Russian Academy of Sciences (since 1932) with many research institutes, picture gallery, theater, museums, zoological garden; Central Stadium (built 1953–57, rebuilt in 2014–17 for the 2018 World Cup).
Yekaterinburg is one of the most important industrial agglomerations in Russia (center of the industrial zone of the central Urals); Machine and plant construction, iron, steel and non-ferrous metal industry, metal processing, energy technology, based on this an extensive armaments industry, as well as chemical and light industry. The traditional company »Uralmasch« is one of the largest Russian machine builders (manufacture of armaments, power plant technology and systems for mining). Serious environmental damage through high pollutant emissions. Most important financial and service center of the Urals; important traffic junction (Trans-Siberian Railway, trunk road from the European part of the country to Siberia, international airport “Kolzowo”).
History: Founded in 1723 with the construction of an ironworks and hammer mill on the Isset and named after Catherine I (wife of Peter the Great), Yekaterinburg was one of the first Russian factory towns to be laid out according to plan. It quickly developed into an industrial, commercial and administrative center (seat of the influential mountain administration of the Urals, rail connection to Perm in 1878). On the night of July 16-17, 1918, Tsar Nicholas II and his family were shot here (today a memorial). Until 1991 the city was inaccessible to foreigners due to the concentration of armaments factories.
Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk, until 1925 Novonikolajewsk, regional capital in Russia, in the southeast of the West Siberian lowlands, on the Ob, with (2018) 1.61 million residents, third largest city in Russia and largest city in Siberia; leading science, culture, trade and industry center of Western Siberia.
Russian Orthodox bishopric; several universities (inter alia for architecture and art, information and communication, economy, transport, agriculture, medicine, education), conservatory, Siberian department of the Russian Academy of Sciences with the science city built in 1957-66 as an institute and housing estate for scientists and their families Akademgorodok with about 131,000 residents on the Novosibirsk reservoir, next to it the smaller science cities Krasnoobsk (for agriculture) and Kolzowo (for biotechnology). There are also several museums, a picture gallery, a theater, opera and ballet, a philharmonic hall and a zoological garden. The most important industrial sectors are the steel industry and non-ferrous metallurgy (electric steel, tin alloy works), power generation, metalworking, electrotechnical / electronic industry, mechanical engineering (especially agricultural machinery), aircraft, vehicle and device construction, chemical and pharmaceutical, light, leather and Food industry. The proportion of companies in the military-industrial complex that was affected by declines in production and major structural change (armaments conversion) during the 1990s is high. Akademgorodok is a center of information and communication technology (especially software development). Since the late 1990s economic growth with a developed service sector; growing media industry, annual trade fairs. River port, railway junction (connection of the Turkestan-Siberian to the Trans-Siberian Railway), Tolmachevo International Airport, metro (opened in 1986). Above Novosibirsk the Novosibirsk reservoir (1,070 km 2 area) on the Ob.
Settlement growth began in 1893 with the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway, and in 1904 Novosibirsk became a city. During the Second World War, the city developed into a center of the Soviet armaments industry (especially due to the relocation of industrial plants from the European part of Russia during the war).