A large number of peoples have inhabited Mongolia since prehistoric times. According to Youremailverifier, most were nomads who formed large confederations from time to time. They were brought together to form a confederation by Modu Shanyu in 209 BC. They defeated the Donghu, who had previously been the dominant force in eastern Mongolia. The Shanyu became the greatest threat to China for the next three centuries; the great wall of china it was built in part as a defense against the Shanyu. Marshal Meng Tian of the Qin Empire dispersed more than 300,000 soldiers along the great wall to prevent an invasion from the north. The Janato Rouran (330-555), of Xianbei origin, controlled an extensive empire before being defeated by the Köktürks (555-745), whose empire was even greater (they besieged Panticapea, present-day Kerch, in 576). They were succeeded by the Uyghur Janato (745-840), displaced by the Kyrgyz. The Mongol Kitan ruled Mongolia during the Liao Dynasty (907-1125) until the rise of the Mongol Jamag (1125-1206).
At the beginning of the 13th century, the Mongolian people were divided into many tribes, with an intense internal struggle to maintain their rule and the domination of one tribe over another. A prominent tribal leader, Temuujin (1167-1227), son of Esugey Baatar, at the age of 13 succeeds his father as tribal chief, who with his qualities as a warrior, his gifts to win loyal allies and under the wrath of seeing his tribe after his father died, he knew how to discipline his tribe and unify under his command all the Mongols at the age of 25 and set out to conquer the entire world within his grasp. In 1206 he formed the Mongol state and was proclaimed as the great king of the Mongol Empire under the name Genghis Khan.. Genghis Khan and his immediate successors conquered virtually all of Asia and European Russia, sending armies even as far away as Central Europe or Southeast Asia. Genghis Khan’s grandson, Kublai Khan, who conquered China and established the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368), gained great fame in Europe due to the writings of Marco Polo.
Although the Mongol confederations wielded great political power over their conquered territories, their strength rapidly declined after the Mongol dynasty in China was overthrown in 1368. The Manchu, a tribal group that conquered China in 1644 and formed the Qing dynasty, a foreign dynasty that held the imperial throne in Beijing until 1911, managed to keep Mongolia under their control in 1691. During the Qing dynasty, under whose rule each region of Mongolia was administered differently: “Outer Mongolia”: the four Leagues (aymags) of the Khalkha Mongols of central and northern Mongolia, as well as the regions of Tannu Uriankhai and Hovd in the northwest, they were supervised by General de Uliastay in the city of Uliastay. It is equivalent to the current independent state of Mongolia, the Russian-administered region of Tannu Uriankhai and a part of northern Xinjiang. “Inner Mongolia”: the Flags and tribes of southern Mongolia were part of six Leagues (chuulghan): Jirim, Juu Uda, Josutu, Xilingol, Ulaan Chab and Yeke Juu. They are equivalent to most of Inner Mongolia and some neighboring areas in Liaoning and Jilin provinces. “Mongolia Taoxi”: Alashan Oolud and Ejine Torghuud’s flags were distinct from the Aymags of Outer Mongolia and the Chuulghans of Inner Mongolia. It is equivalent to most of the western part of present-day Inner Mongolia. The Eight Chaha Flags were controlled by the military commander of Chahar (present-day Zhangjiakou). Its extension corresponds to the southern Ulaan Chab and Baynnur in present-day Inner Mongolia plus the region surrounding Zhangjiakou in Hebei province. At the same time, the jurisdiction of some border departments of Zhili and Shanxi provinces also overlap in this region. The flag of Guihua Tümed was controlled by the commander of Suiyuan (present Hohhot). It corresponds to the neighborhoods of the modern city of Hohhot. At the same time, the jurisdiction of some border departments of Shanxi Province also overlap in this region. The Hulunbuir region, in what is now northeastern Inner Mongolia, was part of the jurisdiction of General Heilongjiang, one of three that Manchuria had. The fall of the Qing dynasty (1616 – 1911) in 1911, at the hands of the republican forces in China, led to the independence of Outer Mongolia. Although its independence was brief, since the Chinese troops occupied the Mongolian capital in 1919. Outer Mongolia declared independence from China in 1921 with the support of the Red Army, and it was not until 1924 that an independent government was formed, when the People’s Republic of Mongolia was created with Soviet support.
During World War II, the USSR defended Mongolia from Japan. The Republic of Mongolia was recognized as an independent state by the Republic of China in 1946, but this recognition would be canceled a few years later. After the end of the Chinese Civil War, the new state of the People’s Republic of China accepted the Soviet request to recognize the independence of Mongolia, while the remnant of the ROC regime took refuge in Taiwan, would continue to regard Outer Mongolia as a part of China. Despite the establishment of diplomatic relations, China-Mongolia relations would remain distant, and Mongolia would align with the Soviet side, evidently after the Sino-Soviet Rupture of 1958, and would host many Soviet military bases during the Cold War.
Mongolia joined the United Nations in 1961. In 1990, the Communists relinquished control over the government, passing a new constitution in 1992 that created a hybrid presidential / parliamentary state.