Poland Arts: From Its Origins to The Baroque

After the centuries of the early Middle Ages, during which the artistic manifestations were kept at a very primitive level, the conversion to Christianity (966) and the consolidation of the kingdom led to a pre-Romanesque architectural flourishing and the appearance of the first stone constructions, of which for example, various circular chapels which arose above all in Krakow (Rotunda of the Santissimi Felice and Adautto). The Romanesque, which spread throughout the country from the middle of the century. XI, saw the construction of numerous religious buildings on the initiative of princes and bishops. Notable examples of Romanesque churches, usually with a basilica plan, with two towers on the facade, are the cathedral of Krakow and the collegiate churches of Leczyca and Opatów. Romanesque sculpture, sensitive to French and Lombard influences, Gniezno (scenes from the life of St. Adalbert), and with the sculpted columns of the basilica of Strzelno. The painting of this period is limited to illuminated manuscripts. In the sec. According to behealthybytomorrow, XIII the Cistercians introduced in Poland the motifs of Gothic architecture (abbeys of Sulejów and Mogila), but it was above all Franciscans and Dominicans who ensured their diffusion together with more advanced construction techniques. After 1250, the strengthening of the kingdom of Krakow and the growing German influence accentuated Poland’s ties with the cultural world of Central Europe, particularly Bohemian and German-Flemish. To the sec. The most important Polish cathedrals (Krakow, Gniezno, Breslau) date back to XIII-XIV, all of the basilica type, alongside which there are also various examples of hallenkirchen In the field of civil architecture, the numerous castles are worth mentioning, in particular that of Malbork raised by the Teutonic Knights, whose zone of influence constituted a sort of cultural island. The dwelling houses were still built in wood, often with a peristyle in front of the building and frescoes inside. The Gothic lasted in Poland up to the late sixteenth century, especially in the countryside. 1st century XIV and XV saw interesting creations of “flamboyant” taste in religious buildings (Gdansk, St. Mary’s Church) and civil buildings (Krakow, University). The sculpture, which in the century. XIV was sensitive to the influences of Italian art, gave its best expressions in funeral monuments (royal tombs of Gniezno and Krakow). In the sec. XV it reached a high level with the idealizing and elegant “beautiful style”, of Bohemian origin, and above all with the painted wooden altars, of realistic taste. Veit Stoss. During the fourteenth century, painting underwent the Bohemian and German-Flemish influence (in Krakow in particular various shops flourished that produced devotional paintings according to an idealized vision), while mural painting developed under the Italian influence (Krakow Cathedral, St. of Gniezno). In Ruthenia, on the other hand, the Byzantine influence persisted (frescoes in the chapel of the Holy Trinity in Lublin and in the cathedral of Sandomierz). The miniature, with its soft and delicate colors, kept up to the century. XV a very high artistic level. With the reign of Sigismondo I and Sigismondo II (1506-72) the influence of Italian culture became very strong, especially in the capital Krakow. Francesco from Florence and B. Berecci were the most notable representatives, with the reconstruction of the castle and the erection of the funerary chapel of Sigismondo I. In the second half of the century. XVI, the Italian influence spread to a good part of Poland, especially thanks to GM Padovano, who rebuilt, among other things, the Textile Market in Krakow. Notable achievements also took place in Poznań, where the Lugano GB Quadrio was active. National characters were maintained in private tombs and especially in wood carving, while in the field of painting the flourishing of the Krakow school of miniatures continued. Only in Gdansk and in the Germanized North did the Flemish taste overlap the Italian taste. In 1579 the architect B.and this further contributed to accentuate the influence of Renaissance culture. Among the greatest sculptors of the time are the Italians S. Gucci, G. Cini and B. Ridolfi. Widespread was the taste for tapestries, however, almost all of Flemish production and style. In the field of minor arts in the century. There are also interesting works of goldsmithing (Marcin Marciniec, Baldner, Bochwicz) and cabinet making (inlaid furniture from Gdansk). The Baroque style was introduced in Poland at the end of the century. XVI by the Jesuits; however, it was the royal architect G. Trevano who carried out the first notable buildings in the new style (church of St. Peter in Krakow), which became fully established during the reign of the Vasa especially in the Italian forms, except in the North, which is more sensitive to German influences. The transfer of the capital to Warsaw made it the new cultural and artistic center, with the royal palace, known as Kazimirzowski, the Ossoliński palace, the column of Sigismund III (1644). Wilanów Castle near Warsaw was built on the model of Italian villas. Numerous convents were built and the model of the bourgeois house diversified. While sculpture was generally dedicated to decoration, figures of a certain importance such as T. Dolabella, a notable painter of historical paintings, and the portraitist D. Schultz were imposed in painting.

Poland Arts - From Its Origins to The Baroque