Science and Culture of Bangladesh

The system of organization of science and education is under the control of the relevant ministry. The most important research centers are the universities in Dhaka and Rajshahi, as well as the Agricultural University in Mymensingh. There are approx. 60 research institutions in the field of agricultural science, medicine, exact and technical sciences, economics and humanities. The most famous are the institutes of jute, animal husbandry, tea, forestry, the atomic energy center, the Institute of Cholera, Radioactive Isotopes, Malaria, the Institute for the Development of Economics, Law and International Relations.

Education has several levels – primary (children from 6 to 11 years old), secondary (up to 16 years old) and higher. Primary school enrollment is 86%, secondary school coverage is 33%. There are three main streams in education – state and non-state adjacent to it with free education in Bengali, private paid with English as the main language of instruction and religious. After 10 years of primary and secondary school, students take state exams and, following their results, continue specialized, for some students paid, education for another 2 years. This is followed by a 2-4-year (for a fee or on a scholarship) study at the university, where there are also higher courses (1-2 years) for obtaining a master’s degree and continuing with science and teaching. The English stream includes private schools and colleges, operating under the patronage of London and Cambridge Universities. Religious schools (primary, maktab, and secondary, madras) are funded by private individuals and religious organizations. To receive higher education, some of those who graduated from English schools go abroad, and graduates of religious schools can continue their studies at Islamic academies (dar-ululum) and the Islamic University in Dhaka.

According to educationvv, the total number of higher educational institutions is 21. In addition to those mentioned, these are universities in Chittagong and Khulna, Jahangirnagar University (near Dhaka), the Islamic Institute of Technology, Shahjalal University in Sylhet, the largest private North-South University, the American International School, etc.

Various scientific and cultural associations gravitate towards the system of higher education and research institutions – economic, sociological, the Bengal Academy, the Asiatic Society, the Society for the Development of Arts and Literature.

Literature is of great social importance. It develops in line with two traditions – a common Bengali one, represented primarily by the work of Rabindranath Tagore (his poem “My Golden Bengal” is the national anthem of Bangladesh), and Muslim. The greatest Bengali Muslim poet is Nazrul Islam. Modern literature is represented by a large number of famous poets and writers, as well as critics and publicists.

Painting based on the traditions of the Mughal miniature and various trends in European fine art is very popular. Classic, founder of the largest school of painting – Zeynul Abedin. Artists S.M. Sultan, H. Rahman, M. Bashir and others are very famous.

Architectural monuments belong mainly to the period of the Mughal Empire (16th-18th centuries). Dhaka is home to the Central Public Library and the National Library, as well as the National Archives.

Cinema is the most popular type of mass entertainment. In addition to their own films, Indian, Pakistani and Western films are shown.

The national press is diverse (more than 300 fairly large newspapers and magazines). Most of them are published in Bengali in Dhaka and Chittagong. The leading Bengali newspapers are Doinik Bangla, Itifak, Pratidin. Of the English ones, the Bangladesh Observer and the Bangladesh Times are the most famous.

General information about Bangladesh

The official name is the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. It is located in the southern part of Asia (at the junction of the regions of South and Southeast Asia). The area is 144 thousand km2 (according to other sources – 147.6 and 148.4 thousand km2). Population 133 million people. (2002). The official language is Bangla (Bengali). The capital is Dhaka (Dhaka) (8.6 million people, 2002). Public holidays – Independence Day March 26 (since 1971), Victory Day December 16 (since 1971). The monetary unit is the taka (Bangladeshi taka).

Member of the UN (since 1974), Non-Aligned Movement (since 1972), OIC (since 1974), South Asian Cooperation Association (SAARC) (since 1985), IBRD, IMF, WTO, Asian Development Bank, etc.

Education of Bangladesh